An-Nisa · Juz 5 · Qur'an Tafseer

Tafseer Surah an-Nisa Ayah 98 and 99

In ayah 98, Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala is exempting those who cannot do anything about their situation, from hijrah. He says,

إِلاَّ الْمُسْتَضْعَفِينَ مِنَ الرِّجَالِ وَالنِّسَآءِ وَالْوِلْدَنِ لاَ يَسْتَطِيعُونَ حِيلَةً وَلاَ يَهْتَدُونَ سَبِيلاً

“Except the oppressed among the men and the women and the children who cannot devise a plan nor are they directed to a way.”

This is an excuse that Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala gives for this type of people not to emigrate, because they are unable to free themselves from the idolators. And even if they did, they would not know which way to go.

This is why Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala said,

لاَ يَسْتَطِيعُونَ حِيلَةً وَلاَ يَهْتَدُونَ سَبِيلاً

meaning, they do not find the way to emigrate, as Mujahid, Ikrimah and As-Suddi stated.

Next in ayah 99, Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala says that due to their incapability to migrate they shall be pardoned,

فَأُوْلَـئِكَ عَسَى اللَّهُ أَن يَعْفُوَ عَنْهُمْ

“These are they whom Allah is likely to forgive them”

meaning, pardon them for not migrating, and here, `likely’ means He shall,

وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَفُوّاً غَفُوراً

“and Allah is Ever Oft-Pardoning, Oft-Forgiving.”

Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Hurayrah radhiAllahu anhu said, “While the Messenger of Allah was praying Isha, he said, `Sami` Allahu Liman Hamidah.’ He then said before he prostrated,

اللَّهُمَّ أَنْجِ عَيَّاشَ بْنَ أبِي رَبِيعَةَ، اللَّهُمَّ أَنْجِ سَلَمَةَ بْنَ هِشَامٍ، اللَّهُمَّ أَنْجِ الْوَلِيدَ بْنَ الْوَلِيدِ، اللَّهُمَّ أَنْجِ الْمُسْتَضْعَفِينَ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ، اللَّهُمَّ اشْدُدْ وَطْأَتَكَ عَلَى مُضَرَ، اللَّهُمَّ اجْعَلْهَا سِنِينَ كَسِنِي يُوسُف

O Allah! Save Ayyash bin Abi Rabi`ah. O Allah! Save Salamah bin Hisham. O Allah! Save Al-Waleed bin Al-Waleed. O Allah! Save the weak Muslims. O Allah! Be very hard on Mudar tribe. O Allah! Afflict them with years (of famine) similar to the (famine) years of the time of Prophet Yusuf.”

Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu An-Numan said that Hammad bin Zayd said that Ayyub narrated that Ibn Abi Mulaykah said that Ibn Abbas commented on the verse,

إِلاَّ الْمُسْتَضْعَفِينَ

“I and my mother were among those (weak ones) whom Allah excused.”

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