The Necessity of Referring to Qur’an for Judgment
We have read previously that some revelations came to settle a matter or conflicting situation. But revelations couldn’t be send each time a dispute arose. Therefore, through this ayah Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala is commanding the believers to base their judgments according to what Qur’an says.
Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala begins this ayah by saying,
إِنَّآ أَنزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ الْكِتَـبَ بِالْحَقِّ لِتَحْكُمَ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ بِمَآ أَرَاكَ اللَّهُ
“Indeed, We have revealed to you the Book with the truth so that you may judge between the people with what Allah has shown you….”
Qur’an is the word of Allah. It’s narrations and commandments come from no one, but Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala. The word “truth” used in the ayah indicates “revelation for all the right reasons” as well as “containing the truth”. Qur’an is authentic and true.
This ayah is addressed to the Prophet sallAllahu aalyhi wa sallam. Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala is telling him that the reason behind sending this Book was to judge people according to how Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala has revealed to him or shown him.
The message here for us is that firstly, as believers we are supposed to judge matters according to Qur’an and secondly, on the basis of what we see with our own eyes or know for sure. Judgments cannot be made on assumptions or on the basis of someone else’s opinions without any evidence.
Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala then says next,
وَلاَ تَكُنْ لِّلْخَآئِنِينَ خَصِيماً
“And do not be a pleader for the deceitful.”
The word “khaineen” is from the word khayana i.e. someone gives you something as trust and you do khayana in it, you don’t return it to them, you don’t do what was expected of you, etc. Khayana may also mean to be treacherous, to cheat someone, to appear to be what one is not. On the other hand, khaseem is from the word khasm which means argument. Therefore khaseem is a person who argues, defends or advocates for someone.
In this ayah, Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala are instructing the Prophet sallAllahu aalyhi wa sallam in particular and the Ummah in general not to support a treacherous, sinful person. A treacherous person betrays himself and others. Therefore, a believer must not speak on the behalf of or defend a person who cheats, commit sins, etc.