From this ayah we learn that:
1. Despite the fact that a Muslim was at fault, the Jew was not accused. What do we do? If there’s a conflict between a Muslim and a non-Muslim, we will support the Muslim man even if he is at fault. In this ayah, Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala calls a Muslim person who was blaming a Jewish man khayneen i.e. treacherous. Here we learn about the justice of our Deen. We have to enjoin good and forbid evil, even if the one at fault is our Muslim brother or sister.
2. The hakim or the judge should decide according to the teachings of Qur’an. Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala revealed the Qur’an so that we don’t just recite it or take it as a Book of protection or Book of barakah, but He revealed it so that we can use it. What’s the point of having a Guide and placing it high on the shelf assuming it will do it’s magic on its own?
3. Moreover, the hakim must judge according to what he sees, finds or learns; anything that he knows for sure or has evidence for. If there is a witness, he listens to him. If there’s no witness or evidence available the judge cannot assume anything on his own.
3. A person should not speak for or against something; a person should not affirm or negate something except after knowledge. The Prophet sallAllahu aalyhi wa sallam was about to make a decision in favor of the criminal based on what he was told, then this ayah was revealed immediately. The lesson here is that if you don’t have knowledge, neither affirm nor deny. Don’t be hasty in passing the judgment. The Prophet sallAllahu aalyhi wa sallam is being told to wait till he ascertains the truth. We on the other hand, pass judgments without any knowledge. By learning a few things about Deen, we consider ourselves Ulema and Muftis.
4. The hakim should not side with the criminals. If you know someone who is guilty, they are the ones at fault don’t advocate for them. This shows a lawyer cannot take up a case where he knows that his client is guilty. Income earned from such a case will not be halal.
5. Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala says in this ayah not to plead for the deceitful. If someone’s own friend or family does something wrong, they are not supposed to support them. Whoever intercedes for evil, does shifa’at for evil then he has a share in it as well. When you are fully aware of their oppression or wrong deeds, don’t defend them. Why do we support people? Sometimes it’s because of money, sometimes it’s due to blood ties or friendship. For example, we have a friend who is clearly cheating on a test or haven’t done their assignment and copying from us. If we cover up for them, then we are defending the khaseen, the deceitful.