The Night Journey and the Ascension was a great blessing bestowed upon Muhammad salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. It was a journey beginning at the Masjid in Makkah, then moving overland to Masjid al-Aqsa in Jerusalem and finally continuing up through the seven heavens into the presence of Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala.
As we travel up through the seven heavens with Prophet Muhammad salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, it is important to remember that the places he visits are not part of Paradise.
In the English language, we generally use the word heaven to mean the spiritual plane of eternal happiness, the reward for a righteous life and the opposite of Hell, the place of eternal punishment. However, this was not always the case; the word heaven comes from the old English word heofon, used to denote the sky, which is the area above the earth where the celestial bodies are. Eventually, heaven lost its original meaning and came to imply Paradise.
In Arabic, however, there have always been two separate words used, sama’ and Jannah. The word sama’ is used for the skies above us, and they are part of the temporary world which will be destroyed on the Day of Judgment. The word Jannah, however, denotes Paradise, the land of eternal bliss, the permanent home of the righteous believers, and the opposite of Hell. (May Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala grant us all the House of eternal bliss, aameen.)
The Wonders of Allah
Prophet Muhammad salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam ascended into the heavens from the rock now housed in the familiar golden dome that has become the symbol for Jerusalem. This is a journey that no other human had ever made or has made since. It demonstrates Allah’s ability to bring the seemingly impossible into being. Here, the concepts of time and space as we know them do not apply, and it is beyond our human capabilities to understand the true omnipotence of Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala.
In his sayings and traditions, Prophet Muhammad salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam described the size of the heavens; the first heaven, as compared to the second, is similar to a small ring in the desert, and he continued this narrative until he described the sixth heaven as being the size of a ring in the desert compared to the seventh heaven. The magnitude of this is unimaginable. Our earth, and what we call the universe, is contained within the first heaven. Even with the scientific knowledge of the 21st century, we have no idea how big this is, how far the universe extends, or what wonders it contains.
Prophet Muhammad salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam traveled with the Angel Jibreel ‘alayhi salaam up into the heights of the heavens. Together they came to the gate of the first heaven, where Angel Jibreel sought permission to enter. The gatekeepers asked, who it was to which Jibreel replied, “It is I, Jibreel.”
The gatekeepers then asked who was accompanying him; when they were told it was Muhammad, they asked if he had been given his mission to guide all of mankind to the worship of one God. Angel Jibreel answered in the affirmative, so the angels welcomed Prophet Muhammad salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, called his arrival a pleasure, and opened the gate.
Greeting the Prophets
Prophet Muhammad salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam tells us that he saw his father Adam ‘alayhi salaam, the father of all of mankind. He greeted him with the greeting of all Muslims, – Assalamu alaikum (may peace be upon you). Adam returned the greeting and expressed his faith in Muhammad’s prophethood. He called him his pure son, the pure Prophet.
Imagine the pleasure that this meeting must have given to both men. After thousands of years, Adam was able to see his son Muhammad salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, the greatest of his descendents. Muhammad was able to look into the eyes of the father of mankind. The wonders however were only just beginning. Angel Jibreel and Prophet Muhammad salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam then ascended to the second heaven.
At the gate, Angel Jibreel again sought permission to enter. When the gatekeepers learned Prophet Muhammad salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had been given his mission and was trying to enter, they welcomed him and opened the gate. There Prophet Muhammad saw the two cousins, Prophet Yahya and Prophet ‘Eesa ‘alayhim salaam; Prophet Muhammad salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam exchanged greetings with them.
Prophet Muhammad salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and Angel Jibreel ascended once more to the gates of the third heaven. At each gate, the same exchange took place. When the gatekeepers had established that it was Angel Jibreel in the company of Prophet Muhammad, who had indeed been given his mission, they gave permission to enter. Here, in the third heaven, Prophet Muhammad salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam met Yusuf ‘alayhi salaam and described him as an embodiment of half of all beauty.
As Prophet Muhammad met the Prophets in each heaven, he exchanged greetings with them, and this was always Assalamu alaikum, the greeting of peace used by all those in submission to the one true God. In the fourth heaven, Prophet Muhammad met Prophet Idrees, whom Allah described in Qur’an (19: 57) as being elevated to a very high level. In the fifth heaven, he met Prophet Haroon, the brother of Musa ‘alayhi salaam. At each meeting, the Prophets expressed their faith in Muhammad’s prophethood. In the sixth heaven, Prophet Muhammad salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam met Musa ‘alayhi salaam.
Whenever Prophet Musa is mentioned in the Qur’an or in the narrations of Prophet Muhammad, we know that something important is about to be described. After the two Prophets had exchanged greetings and Prophet Musa had expressed his faith in Muhammad’s prophethood, Musa started to weep. When he was asked why, he replied, “A young man has come after me, and more of his followers will enter paradise than my followers.”
Until the advent of Islam, Prophet Musa had had the largest following of any Prophet. Musa cried, and from this, we can understand that there was a type of rivalry between the Prophets; but it was not a competition filled with jealousy or envy. Rather, it was filled with compassion. As we move further into the journey, we will see the love and compassion Prophet Musa had for Muhammad salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and his followers.
Prophet Muhammad and Angel Jibreel then ascended into the seventh heaven.
To be continued…
[Slightly modified. Originally posted at onislam.net]