Al-Baqarah · Juz 1 · Qur'an Tafseer

Tafseer Surah Al-Baqarah Ayaat 35-39

وَقُلْنَا يَاءَادَمُ اسْكُنْ أَنْتَ وَزَوْجُكَ الْجَنَّةَ وَكُلاَ مِنْهَا رَغَدًا حَيْثُ شِئْتُمَا وَلاَ تَقْرَبَا هَـذِهِ الشَّجَرَةَ فَتَكُونَا مِنَ الْظَّـلِمِينَ

And We said, “O, dwell, you and your wife, in Paradise and eat therefrom in [ease and] abundance from wherever you will. But do not approach this tree, lest you be among the wrongdoers.”

 فَأَزَلَّهُمَا الشَّيْطَـنُ عَنْهَا فَأَخْرَجَهُمَا مِمَّا كَانَا فِيهِ وَقُلْنَا اهْبِطُواْ بَعْضُكُمْ لِبَعْضٍ عَدُوٌّ وَلَكُمْ فِى الأَرْضِ مُسْتَقَرٌّ وَمَتَـعٌ إِلَى حِينٍ

But Satan caused them to slip out of it and removed them from that [condition] in which they had been. And We said, “Go down, [all of you], as enemies to one another, and you will have upon the earth a place of settlement and provision for a time.”

فَتَلَقَّى ءَادَمُ مِن رَّبِّهِ كَلِمَاتٍ فَتَابَ عَلَيْهِ إِنَّهُ هُوَ التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيمُ 

Then Adam received from his Lord [some] words, and He accepted his repentance. Indeed, it is He who is the Accepting of repentance, the Merciful.

قُلْنَا اهْبِطُواْ مِنْهَا جَمِيعًا فَإِمَّا يَأْتِيَنَّكُم مِّنِّى هُدًى فَمَن تَبِعَ هُدَايَ فَلاَ خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلاَ هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ

We said, “Go down from it, all of you. And when guidance comes to you from Me, whoever follows My guidance – there will be no fear concerning them, nor will they grieve.

وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ وَكَذَّبُواْ بِآيَـتِنَآ أُولَـئِكَ أَصْحَـبُ النَّارِ هُمْ فِيهَا خَـلِدُونَ

And those who disbelieve and deny Our signs – those will be companions of the Fire; they will abide therein eternally.”

Prophet Adam’s Honor and Test

Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala honored Adam ‘alayhi sallam by commanding the angels to prostrate before him, so they all complied except for Iblees. Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala then allowed Adam ‘alayhi sallam to live and eat wherever and whatever he wished in Paradise.

Allah’s statement to Adam ‘alayhi salaam,

وَلاَ تَقْرَبَا هَـذِهِ الشَّجَرَةَ

It means, “but come not near this tree.” It was a test for Prophet Adam.

Some scholars are of the opinion that the heaven being talked about is an elevated place, a garden where Prophet Adam and his wife were allowed to stay and eat whatever their heart desired and do whatever they willed. But they were warned against going near a certain tree.

As explained in the previous ayaat Iblees had defied the commands of Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala and thus had become one of the disbelievers. He tricked Adam ‘alayhi sallam and Haw’wa alayhi sallam to eat from the forbidden tree because he resented the fact that because of Prophet Adam, Iblees had been become one of the disbelievers and was thrown out of Paradise. To get even, he tricked them into committing the mistake of going against Allah’s order and as a result, they too were ordered to leave the Paradise and live on earth for a temporary period. 

Quran doesn’t discuss which tree was the forbidden one because the purpose here is to emphasize the fact that if a believer is forbidden to do something, it’s inevitable that the devil will try to tempt him to do otherwise. This Paradise was an example for Prophet Adam to show him what will happen to his progeny on earth i.e. they will be tricked and tempted by the Satan to defy Allah’s commands thereby displeasing Him.

Iblees had prayed to Allah to grant him a long life so that he can prove to Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala that Adam ‘alayhi sallam is not faithful to Him and most of his progeny will not worship Him. Allah, the most High, granted his prayer marking the beginning of an open war between the agents of Allah (progeny of Prophet Adam) and the agents of Iblees (Satan).

Definition of Tawbah (repentance):      

Tawbah lingually means: returning back and legally means: the returning back from the sin to the obedience of Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala.

Tawbah Ruling:

It is obligatory at once for Allah [Exalted be He] says: “O you who believe! Turn to Allâh with sincere repentance!” [At-Tahreem:8]

Tawbah Conditions:

1- Abandoning the sin

2- To regret what has happened

3- To determinate sincerely not to go back to the sin

4- It has to be done within the time limit of theTawbah that is before the agony of death and before the sun rises from the west

5- To free himself from grievances of others and give back the rights to their owners

Prophet Adam Repents and Supplicates to Allah

Prophet Adam ‘alayhi sallam was sincerely regretful of the mistake he had committed and wanted to ask for forgiveness but was unable to express his regret in words. At that moment Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala taught him the words of repentance.

رَبَّنَا ظَلَمْنَآ أَنفُسَنَا وَإِن لَّمْ تَغْفِرْ لَنَا وَتَرْحَمْنَا لَنَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْخَـسِرِينَ

“Our Lord! We have wronged ourselves. If You forgive us not, and bestow not upon us Your Mercy, we shall certainly be of the losers.” [Al- A’raf 7: 23]

The Ayat mentioned above, testify to the fact that Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala forgives the sins of whoever repents, demonstrating His kindness and mercy towards His creation and servants. There is no deity worthy of worship except Allah, the Most Forgiving, the Most Merciful.

Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala stated that when He sent Adam ‘alayhi sallam, Hawwa’, and Shaytan to earth from Paradise, He warned them that He will reveal Books and send Prophets and Messengers to them, i.e., to their offspring. Abu Al-`Aliyah said, “Al-Huda, refers to the Prophets, Messengers, the clear signs, and plain explanation.”

فَمَن تَبِعَ هُدَايَ

“And whoever follows My guidance” meaning, whoever accepts what is contained in My Books and what I send the Messengers with.

Indeed Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala is very Merciful, He forgave Prophet Adam ‘alayhi sallam and assured that all those who will follow His commandments on earth need not fear but those who disbelieve and deny the ayaat of Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala, Allah’s proofs and evidence of His Lordship and Monotheism and what the messengers have come with, their abode will be the Hell-fire and that will be eternal.

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