Al-Adiyat · Juz 30 · Qur'an Tafseer

Tafseer Surah Al-Adiyat Ayah 7 – 11

The Threat about the Hereafter

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In ayah 7, Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala talks about man witnessing his own ungratefulness towards Allah. He says, “And indeed, he is to that a witness.” Qatadah and Sufyan Ath-Thawri both said, “And indeed Allah is a witness to that.” It is also possible that the pronoun (He) could be referring to man. This was said by Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi. Thus, its meaning would be that man is a witness himself to the fact that he is ungrateful. This is obvious in his condition, meaning this is apparent from his statements and deeds. Man is the biggest proof against himself.

This means that even if a person denies being ungrateful to his Master in dunya, his own body will be testifying against him on the Day of Judgment. When we do something wrong or sinful, we may try to ignore the guilty feeling however it still lingers on in our minds and hearts. Even if we take no notice of our conscience, on the Day of Judgment we can’t escape our evil deeds.

Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala says next, “And verily, he is intense in the love of wealth,” (100: 8). According to Ibn Kathir, there are two opinions concerning this. One of them is that it means that he is severe in his love of wealth. The other view is that it means he is covetous and stingy due to the love of wealth. However, both views are correct.

The word حُبّ ‘hubb’ contains root words ha–ba–ba which indicates to be loved, affected/liked/approved, be an object of love, lovely/pleasing/charming, take pleasure in a thing, etc. When we love something we think it is good for us and we will do anything to get it.

The word al-Khair’ الْخَيْرِ in the ayah is referring to wealth, but the actual meaning is ‘good’. Man’s love of ‘good [things]’ is truly intense. The word شَدِيد ‘shadeed’ contains root words sheen–dal–dal which indicates to bind tightly, intense,  etc. Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala is telling us that the man is strongly tied in his pursuit of wealth.

It is a sad tragedy that throughout history people have killed one another for gaining more wealth and other resources. Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala encourages abstinence from worldly things and striving for the Hereafter. Informing what our situation will be after this present condition, and what horrors we will face on the Day of Judgment Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala asks,

“But does he not know that when the contents of the graves are scattered,” (100: 9).

This means when the dead will come to life and all their secrets and good and bad deeds are revealed.

The word ‘Buthira’ comprises of the root words ba–ayn–tha-ra which indicate scatter abroad, turn upside down, to overthrow. Raghib al Isfahani writes that the word bu’thira comes from two words ba’tha and a’thara combined, to make the four letter word ba’thara which means pulling something out i.e. out of a box which contained a lot of other things too. On the Day of Judgment, we will be pulled out of the earth and our amaal(deeds) would be brought forward.

In this ayah, Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala is asking the question: Does man not know that when everything in the graves will be pulled out. When the bandits and robbers and murderers and war criminals kill someone – they cover themselves in the earth so they are hidden from the public, passer bys or human rights’ groups. Here, Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala is saying that everything and everyone in the graves will be taken out (in court) on that Day, all will be revealed.

He then says in Ayah 10, “Whatever is in the chest [i.e. heart] will be revealed.” Ibn ‘Abbas radhiAllahu ‘anhu and others have said, “This means what was in their souls would be exposed and made apparent.”

The word hussila means to make something apparent. It is derived from the word ‘tahsil’ which means to bring out something in the open, and to sort out different things from one another. Thus, the use of tahsil concerning hidden secrets of the hearts contains both the meanings: to expose them and to sort out the good from the evil. On the Day of Judgmen,t our deceiving outer coverage will be peeled away to reveal what’s inside our hearts. This means that all our intentions, aims, ideas, thoughts and motives behind our acts and deeds that lie hidden in our hearts will be exposed and examined.

In other words, unlike dunya, Judgment will not be passed only on the apparent and the superficial as to what a man practically did, but the secrets hidden in the hearts will also be brought forward in front of all the people and Allah Almighty Himself.

This Surah began with a bit of intro about how a man lives a careless life on earth. He uses the same blessings that Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala has given him for his benefit and comfort, to oppress others and spread corruption. He knows of his own evil deeds yet he is continuously in a state of disobedience to his Master.

Coming to the end of the Surah, Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala is warning us of the Hereafter that we may escape justice in dunya, but in the akhirah (Hereafter) when we will be standing in His Court we will be answerable for every action and deed. He will not just judge on the basis of what we did, but also on the hidden motives and thoughts behind them. May Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala forgive us and make us stronger against Shaytan’s whisperings, ameen.

Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala ends this Surah by saying, “Indeed, that Day their Lord will be Well-Acquainted with them,” (100: 11). He knows all of that they used to do, and He will compensate them for it with the most deserving reward. He does not do even the slightest amount of injustice.

When the word ‘bihim’ is placed early in the sentence structure it signifies emphasis. The phrase ‘inna rabbahum bihim’ means ‘indeed, their Lord about them…’

We learned previously (refer tafseer of Surah al-Ma’un) that the word ‘idhin’ has been used in the Qur’an to indicate the Day of Resurrection or the Hereafter. So the phrase ‘yawma idhin’ stands for on that Day.

The bandit or evil doer may think whose going to know my intent? If I have hidden the murdered who is going to find out? Only I know my crimes and they are hidden from everyone else. I will get away with it. Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala is reminding us that He is Khabeer meaning the One Who is well-acquainted with what people do. Khabeer and Aleem can both be used to indicate the one who holds knowledge or is well-informed but the word Khabeer is more powerful. It means being fully aware of inside and outside.

May we change our attitude towards this life and be more concerned about the Hereafter. O Allah! Allow us the ability to praise You and express Your shukr as it befits You, ameen.

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