In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful
Tafseer Al-Baqarah Ayah 196 (Part 2)
The ayah began with completing the Hajj and ‘Umrah after one has entered into ihram. Then we were provided with a way out that what should be done if one faces blockade in their task. now, Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala again reminds us to complete to the Hajj and ‘Umrah after the blockade has been removed. “And when you are secure, then whoever performs ‘Umrah (during the Hajj months) followed by Hajj (offers) what can be obtained with ease of sacrificial animals.”
In the olden days, the Arabs believed that one must take the journey for ‘Umrah and Hajj separately. Here that misconception was removed that there is no need to make two separate journeys. One can perform ‘Umrah during the Hajj months and then perform Hajj. This time of pilgrimage is called Tamattu.
Being able to combine Hajj and ‘Umrah during the Hajj months is a great favor from Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala as it saves one from undertaking two separate journeys. As a gratitude for this great favor, the pilgrims are required to offer a sacrifice, if one is able to. It can be any sacrificial animal that one can afford and is available.
However, if one is not financially able then they are obligated to fast for ten days. Three of these days will be within the Hajj days completing them by 9th Thul-Hijjah and the remaining seven can be completed after Hajj. No place or date for the remaining fasts has been stated. It is up to the person.
Al-Bukhari reported that Salim ibn ‘Abdullah narrated that Ibn ‘Umar radhiAllahu ‘anhu said, “During the Farewell Hajj of Allah’s Messenger, he performed Tamattu with ‘Umrah and Hajj. He drove a Hady along with him from Dhul-Hulayfah. Allah’s Messenger started by assuming ihram for ‘Umrah, and then for Hajj. And the people, too, performed the ‘Umrah and Hajj along with the Prophet salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Some of them brought the Hady and drove it along with them, while the others did not. So, when the Prophet arrived at Makkah, he said to the people:
مَنْ كَانَ مِنْكُم أَهْدَى فَإِنَّهُ لَا يَحِلُّ مِنْ شَيْءٍ حَرُمَ مِنْهُ حَتَّى يَقْضِيَ حَجَّهُ، وَمَنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ مِنْكُمْ أَهْدَى فَلْيَطُفْ بالْبَيْتِ وبالصَّفَا وَالْمَرْوَةِ وَلْيُقَصِّرْ وَلْيَحْلِلْ، ثُمَّ لْيُهِلَّ بِالْحَجِّ، فَمَنْ لَمْ يجَدْ هَدْيًا فَلْيَصُمْ ثَلَاثَةَ أَيَّامٍ فِي الْحَجِّ، وَسَبْعةً إِذَا رَجَعَ إِلى أَهْلِه
‘Whoever among you has driven the Hady, should not finish his ihram till he completes his Hajj. And whoever among you has not (driven) the Hady with him, he should perform Tawaf of the Ka’abah and between As-Safa and Al-Marwah. Then, he should shave or cut his hair short and finish his ihram, and should later assume ihram for Hajj; but he must offer a Hady. And if anyone cannot afford a Hady, he should fast for three days during the Hajj and seven days when he returns home.’”
The Residents of Makkah Do Not Perform Tamattu
“This is for those whose family is not in the area of al-Masjid al-Haram.” It is because they live in Makkah, instead of crowding the place during Hajj, they can perform their ‘Umrah any time.
The Warning against Violation of Rules
Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala ends the ayah with a reminder of taqwa. It because one cannot stay away from the prohibitions or be encouraged to perform the permissible acts unless he is conscious of Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala. He says, “…fear Allah and know that Allah is severe in penalty.”
Mufti Muhammad Shafi Usmani writes: Anyone who knowingly acts against the injunctions revealed by Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala, for him the punishment of Allah is severe. Today, people who go for Hajj or ‘Umrah are widely negligent. They do not make the necessary effort to find out the rules of Hajj and ‘Umrah. Many of them do not follow the rules strictly, even if they have the knowledge. Bad guides or careless fellow pilgrims sometimes make one miss the obligatory acts, let alone the Sunnah and the proper etiquette of the pilgrimage. May Allah bless all of us with the ability to correct what we do (aameen).
From the closing words, we can draw the lesson that one should live his life as a conscious Muslim. One should not start a project and then abandon it. This is especially for those who are Islamic studies students or teachers. If we are sincerely doing this for the sake of Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala and to become better Muslims there is no reason that we will abandon a good deed.
We should remember that just like not all the Muslims get a chance to visit the House of Allah similarly not every Muslim gets a chance to study His Book or do good in His path. If you have been chosen for this path then stay committed to it.
It also teaches us that we should learn the rules of Hajj and ‘Umrah before we go for pilgrimage. We should not remain ignorant about our Deen. If we learn the other things in our life such as reading, writing, cooking, dressing up, etc. then why can’t we learn about our religious obligations?
May Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala allow us to become conscious Muslims, put ikhlas in our worship so that we do not perform any deed for the pleasure of other people but only for the sake of He Who gave us the ability and strength to perform it, and to remain committed in His path, aameen.