Tafseer Surah Aal-Imran Ayaat 200
Hasan Al-Basri said, “The believers are commanded to be patient in the religion that Allah chose for them, Islam. They are not allowed to abandon it in times of comfort or hardship, ease or calamity until they die as Muslims. They are also commanded to endure against their enemies, those who hid the truth about their religion.” A similar explanation was given by several other scholars among the Salaf.
As for Murabatah, it is to endure in acts of worship and perseverance. It also means to await prayer after prayer, as Ibn `Abbas, Sahl bin Hanif and Muhammad bin Ka’b Al-Qurazi stated. Ibn Abi Hatim collected a hadeeth that was also collected by Muslim and An-Nasa’i from Abu Hurayrah radhiAllahu ‘anhu that the Prophet salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said,
أَلَا أُخْبِرُكُمْ بِمَا يَمْحُو اللهُ بِهِ الْخَطَايَا، وَيَرْفَعُ بِهِ الدَّرَجَاتِ؟ إِسْباغُ الوُضُوءِ عَلَى الْمَكَارِهِ، وَكَثْرَةُ الْخُطَا إِلَى الْمَسَاجِدِ، وَانْتِظَارُ الصَّلَاةِ بَعْدَ الصَّلَاةِ، فَذلِكُمُ الرِّبَاطُ، فَذلِكُمُ الرِّبَاطُ، فَذلِكُمُ الرِّبَاط
“Should I tell you about actions with which Allah forgives sins and raises the grade Performing perfect ablution in unfavorable conditions, the many steps one takes to the Masajid, and awaiting prayer after the prayer, for this is the Ribat, this is the Ribat, this is the Ribat.”
They also say that the Murabatah in the above ayah refers to battles against the enemy, and manning Muslim outposts to protect them from enemy incursions inside Muslim territory. There are several ahadeeth that encourage Murabatah and mention its rewards. Al-Bukhari recorded that Sahl bin Sa’d As-Sa’idi radhiAllahu ‘anhu said that the Messenger of Allah salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said,
رِبَاطُ يَوْمٍ فِي سَبِيلِ اللهِ خَيْرٌ مِنَ الدُّنْيَا وَمَا عَلَيْهَا
“A Day of Ribat in the cause of Allah is better than this life and all that is in it.”
Muslim recorded that Salman Al-Farisi radhiAllahu ‘anhu said that the Messenger of Allah salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said,
رِبَاطُ يَوْمٍ وَلَيْلَةٍ خَيْرٌ مِنْ صِيَامِ شَهْرٍ وَقِيامِهِ، وَإِنْ مَاتَ جَرَى عَلَيْهِ عَمَلُهُ الَّذِي كَانَ يَعْمَـــــــلُهُ، وَأُجْرِيَ عَلَيْهِ رِزْقُــــهُ، وَأَمِنَ الْفَتَّان
“Ribat for a day and a night is better than fasting the days of a month and its Qiyam (voluntary prayer at night). If one dies in Ribat, his regular righteous deeds that he used to perform will keep being added to his account, and he will receive his provision, and will be saved from the trials of the grave.”
Imam Ahmad recorded that Fadalah bin `Ubayd said that he heard the Messenger of Allah salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam saying,
كُلُّ مَيِّتٍ يُخْتَمُ عَلى عَمَلِهِ إِلَّا الَّذِي مَاتَ مُرَابِطًا فِي سَبِيل اللهِ،فَإِنَّهُ يَنْمِي لَهُ عَمَلُهُ إِلى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ، وَيَأْمَنُ فِتْنَةَ الْقَبْر
“Every dead person will have his record of deeds sealed, except for whoever dies while in Ribat in the cause of Allah, for his work will keep increasing until the Day of Resurrection, and he will be safe from the trial of the grave.”
This is the same narration collected by Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi, who said Hasan Saheeh. Ibn Hibban also collected this hadeeth in his Saheeh. At-Tirmidhi recorded that Ibn ‘Abbas radhiAllahu ‘anhu said that he heard the Messenger of Allah salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam saying,
عَيْنَانِ لَا تَمَسُّهُمَا النَّارُ: عَيْنٌ بَكَتْ مِنْ خَشْيَةِ اللهِ، وَعَيْنٌ بَاتَتْ تَحْرُسُ فِي سَبِيلِ الله
“Two eyes shall not be touched by the Fire: an eye that cried for fear from Allah and an eye that spent the night guarding in Allah’s cause.”
Al-Bukhari recorded in his Sahih that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said,
تَعِسَ عَبْدُالدِّينَارِ وَعَبْدُالدِّرْهَمِ وَعَبْدُالْخَمِيصَةِ، إِنْ أُعْطِيَ رَضِيَ، وَإِنْ لَمْ يُعْطَ سَخِطَ، تَعِسَ وَانْتَكَسَ، وَإِذَا شِيكَ فَلَا انْتَقَشَ، طُوبَى لِعَبْدٍ آخِذٍ بِعِنَانِ فَرَسِهِ فِي سَبِيلِ اللهِ، أَشْعَثَ رَأْسُهُ، مُغْبَرَّةٍ قَدَمَاهُ، إِنْ كَانَ فِي الْحِرَاسَةِ كَانَ فِي الْحِرَاسَةِ، وَإِنْ كَانَ فِي السَّاقَةِ كَانَ فِي السَّاقَةِ، إِنِ اسْتَأْذَنَ لَمْ يُؤْذَنْ لَهُ، وَإِنْ شَفَعَ لَمْ يُشَفَّع
“Let the servant of the Dinar, the servant of the Dirham and the servant of the Khamisah (of clothes) perish, as he is pleased if these things are given to him, and if not, he is displeased. Let such a person perish and be humiliated, and if he is pierced with a thorn, let him not find anyone to take it out for him. Paradise is for him who holds the reins of his horse, striving in Allah’s cause, with his hair unkempt and feet covered with dust: if he is appointed to the vanguard, he is perfectly satisfied with his post of guarding, and if he is appointed in the rearguard, he accepts his post with satisfaction; if he asks for permission he is not permitted, and if he intercedes, his intercession is not accepted.”
Ibn Jareer recorded that Zayd bin Aslam said, “Abu ‘Ubaydah wrote to ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab and mentioned to him that the Romans were mobilizing their forces. ‘Umar wrote back, ‘Allah will soon turn whatever hardship a believing servant suffers, to ease, and no hardship shall ever overcome two types of ease. Allah says in His Book,
يَـأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ اصْبِرُواْ وَصَابِرُواْ وَرَابِطُواْ وَاتَّقُواْ اللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ
‘O you who believe! Endure and be more patient, and Rabitu, and have Taqwa of Allah, so that you may be successful.’”
Al-Hafiz Ibn ‘Asakir mentioned in the biography of ‘Abdullah bin Al-Mubarak, that Muhammad bin Ibraheem bin Abi Sakinah said, “While in the area of Tarsus, ‘Abdullah bin Al-Mubarak dictated this poem to me when I was greeting him goodbye. He sent the poem with me to Al-Fudayl bin `Iyad in the year one hundred and seventy,
‘O he who worships in the vicinity of the Two Holy Masajid!
If you but see us, you will realize that you are only jesting in worship.
He who brings wetness to his cheek with his tears,
should know that our necks are being wet by our blood.
He who tires his horses without purpose,
know that our horses are getting tired in battle.
Scent of perfume is yours,
while our scent is the glimmer of spears and the stench of dust (in battle).
We were narrated about in the speech of our Prophet salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam,
an authentic statement that never lies.
That the dust that erupts by Allah’s horses and which fills the nostrils of a man shall never be combined with the smoke of a raging Fire.
This, the Book of Allah speaks among us that the martyr is not dead,
and the truth in Allah’s Book cannot be denied.’
I met Al-Fudayl Ibn `Iyad in the Sacred Masjid and gave him the letter. When he read it, his eyes became tearful and he said, ‘Abu `Abdur-Rahman (`Abdullah bin Al-Mubarak) has said the truth and offered sincere advice to me.’ He then asked me, ‘Do you write the hadeeth?’ I said, ‘Yes.’ He said, ‘Write this hadeeth as reward for delivering the letter of Abu `Abdur-Rahman to me. He then dictated, `Mansur bin Al-Mu`tamir narrated to us that Abu Salih narrated from Abu Hurayrah that a man asked, ‘O Messenger of Allah! Teach me a good deed that will earn me the reward of the Mujahidin in Allah’s cause.’ The Prophet salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said,
هَلْ تَسْتَطِيعُ أَنْ تُصَلِّيَ فَلَا تَفْتُرَ،وَتَصُومَ فَلَا تُفْطِرَ؟
‘Are you able to pray continuously and fast without breaking the fast?’ The man said, ‘O Messenger of Allah! I cannot bear it.’ The Prophet salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said,
فَوَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ لَوْ طُوِّقْتَ ذلِكَ مَا بَلَغْتَ الْمُجَاهِدِينَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللهِ، أَوَ مَا عَلِمْتَ أَنَّ فَرَسَ الْمُجَاهِدِ لَيَسْتَنُّ فِي طِوَلِهِ، فَيُكْتَبُ لَهُ بِذلِكَ الْحَسَنَات
‘By He in Whose Hand is my soul! Even if you were able to do it, you will not achieve the grade of the Mujahideen in Allah’s cause. Did you not know that the horse of the Mujahid earns rewards for him as long as it lives?’”
In the ayah Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala says,
وَاتَّقُواْ اللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ
“…and fear Allah that you may be successful.”
It means to be conscious of Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala in all our affairs and situations so that we may be successful in this life and the next.
When Mu’adh radhiAllahu ‘anhu was traveling to Yemen, the Prophet salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said to him,
اتَّقِ اللهَ حَيْثُمَا كُنْتَ، وَأَتْبِعِ السَّيِّـئَــةَ الْحَسَنَةَ تَمْحُهَا، وَخَالِقِ النَّاسَ بِخُلُقٍ حَسَن
“Be conscious of Allah wherever you may be, follow the evil deed with a good deed and it will erase it, and deal with people in a good manner.”
Ibn Jareer recorded that Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi said that, Allah’s statement,
وَاتَّقُواْ اللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ
Means fear Me concerning what is between you and Me, so that you may acquire success when you meet Me tomorrow.
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